From oleg-at-okmij.org Fri Aug 13 14:58:35 2004
To: haskell@haskell.org
Subject: Keyword arguments
From: oleg-at-pobox.com
Message-ID: <20040813215834.F1FF3AB7E@Adric.metnet.navy.mil>
Date: Fri, 13 Aug 2004 14:58:34 -0700 (PDT)
Status: OR
We show the Haskell implementation of keyword arguments, which goes
well beyond records (e.g., in permitting the re-use of
labels). Keyword arguments indeed look just like regular, positional
arguments. However, keyword arguments may appear in any
order. Furthermore, one may associate defaults with some keywords; the
corresponding arguments may then be omitted. It is a type error to
omit a required keyword argument. The latter property is in stark
contrast with the conventional way of emulating keyword arguments via
records. Also in marked contrast with records, keyword labels may be
reused throughout the code with no restriction; the same label may be
associated with arguments of different types in different
functions. Labels of Haskell records may not be re-used. Our solution
is essentially equivalent to keyword arguments of DSSSL Scheme or
labels of OCaml.
Keyword argument functions are naturally polyvariadic: Haskell does
support varargs! Keyword argument functions may be polymorphic. As
usual, functions with keyword arguments may be partially applied. On
the downside, sometimes one has to specify the type of the return
value of the function (if the keyword argument function has no
signature -- the latter is the norm, see below) -- provided that the
compiler cannot figure the return type out on its own. This is usually
only the case when we use keyword functions at the top level (GHCi
prompt).
Our solution requires no special extensions to Haskell and works with
the existing Haskell compilers; it is tested on GHC 6.0.1. The
overlapping instances extension is not necessary (albeit it is
convenient).
The gist of our implementation is the realization that the type of a
function is a polymorphic collection of its argument types -- a
collection that we can traverse. This message thus illustrates a
limited form of the reflection on a function.
Our implementation is a trivial extension of the strongly-typed
polymorphic open records described in
http://homepages.cwi.nl/~ralf/HList/
In fact, the implementation relies on the HList library. To run the
code (which this message is), one needs to download the HList library
from the above site.
The HList paper discusses the issue of labels in some detail. The
paper gives three different representations. One of them needs no
overlapping instances and is very portable. In this message, we chose
a representation that relies on generic type equality and therefore
needs overlapping instances as implemented in GHC. Again, this is
merely an outcome of our non-deterministic choice. It should be
emphasized that other choices are possible, which do not depend on
overlapping instances at all. Please see the HList paper for details.
> {-# OPTIONS -fglasgow-exts -fallow-undecidable-instances #-}
> {-# OPTIONS -fallow-overlapping-instances #-}
>
> module KW where
>
> import FakePrelude hiding (TypeEq,typeEq,proxyEq,TypeCast,typeCast)
> import TypeEqGeneric2
> import TypeCastGeneric2
> import HListPrelude
We will be using an example inspired by a graphics toolkit -- the area
which really benefits from keyword arguments. We first define our
labels and useful datatypes
> data Color = Color
> data Size = Size
> data Origin = Origin
> data RaisedBorder = RaisedBorder
>
> data CommonColor = Red | Green | Blue deriving Show
> data RGBColor = RGBColor Int Int Int deriving Show
and two functions:
> make_square Size n Origin (x0,y0) Color (color::CommonColor) =
> unwords ["Square:", show n, "at", show (x0,y0), show color] ++ "\n"
>
> make_rect Size (nx,ny) Origin (x0,y0) Color (color::RGBColor)
> RaisedBorder border =
> unwords ["Rectangle:", show (nx,ny), "at", show (x0,y0),
> show color, if border then "raised border" else ""] ++ "\n"
We are not interested in really drawing squares and rectangles
here. Therefore, make_square and make_rect return a String, which we
can regard as a ``command'' to be passed to a low-level graphics
library. The functions make_square and make_rect are genuine functions
and can be used as such. They are not keyword argument functions, yet,
but they set the stage. These functions can be considered an
`interface' for the keyword argument functions. We should note that
the functions are polymorphic: for example, `Size' can be any
showable. We must also emphasize the re-use of the labels: The Color
of a square is the value of the enumerated type CommonColor. OTH, the
color of the rectangle is given as an RGB triple. The sizes of the
square and of the rectangle are specified differently too, the same
label notwithstanding.
Once the user wrote the functions such as make_square and make_rect,
he can _automatically_ convert them to their keyword
alternatives. This transformation is done by a function 'kw'. The user
should pass the positional-argument function (`labeled' as above),
and an HList of default values for some of the labels. The latter may
be HNil if all keyword arguments are required.
The first example (no defaults)
> tests1 :: String =
> kw make_square HNil Size (1::Int) Origin (0::Int,10::Int) Color Red
we can permute the arguments at wish
> tests2 :: String =
> kw make_square HNil Color Red Size (1::Int) Origin (0::Int,10::Int)
we can also assign a name to a keyword function, or partially apply it:
> tests3 = let f x = kw make_square HNil Color Red x
> in "here: " ++ f Origin (0::Int,10::Int) Size (1::Int)
The dummy argument 'x' is merely to avoid the monomorphic
restriction. The following is a more interesting example, with the
defaults:
> tests4 = let defaults = Origin .*. (0::Int,10::Int) .*.
> RaisedBorder .*. True .*.
> HNil
> in kw make_square defaults Size (1::Int) Color Red ++
> kw make_rect defaults Color (RGBColor 0 10 255)
> Size (1.0::Float, 2.0::Float)
The argument RaisedBorder is not given, and so the default value is
used. Of course, we can override the default:
> tests5 = let defaults = Origin .*. (0::Int,10::Int) .*.
> RaisedBorder .*. True .*.
> HNil
> sq x = kw make_square defaults Color x
> re x = kw make_rect defaults x
> in sq Red Size (1::Int) ++
> re Color (RGBColor 0 10 255)
> RaisedBorder False
> Size (1.0::Float, 2.0::Float)
We have reshuffled a few arguments, just for fun. As you can see, the
function `kw make_rect defaults' is polyvariadic indeed. We chose to
partially apply 'Color' to the function `kw make_square defaults' --
so that the function `sq' is positional in its first argument, and
keyword in the rest.
If we omit a required argument, we get a type error:
] testse1 = let f x = kw make_square HNil Color Red x
] in "here: " ++ f Origin (0::Int,10::Int)
Couldn't match `ErrReqdArgNotFound Size' against `[Char]'
Expected type: ErrReqdArgNotFound Size
Inferred type: [Char] ...
The error message seems reasonably clear. Likewise we get an error
message if we pass to a keyword function an argument it does not expect:
] testse2 = let f x = kw make_square HNil Color Red x
] in "here: " ++ f Origin (0::Int,10::Int) Size (1::Int)
] RaisedBorder False
No instances for (Fail (ErrUnexpectedKW RaisedBorder),
KWApply [Char] (HCons RaisedBorder (:*: Bool HNil)) [Char])
arising from use of `f' at ...
In the second argument of `(++)', namely
`f Origin (0 :: Int, 10 :: Int) Size (1 :: Int) RaisedBorder False'
The function 'kw' receives the appropriately labeled function (such
as make_square) and the HList with default values. The function 'kw'
is polymorphic; the overloading is resolved based on the type of the
user function *and* on the type of its continuation. The continuation
indicates if a keyword argument is forthcoming, or not. In the latter
case, 'kw' checks to see if the supplied defaults can provide the
values of the still missing arguments. We see therefore that a
function type is more than it may appear -- the type of a function is
truly a heterogeneous, type level collection! The function 'kw'
traverses that collection, thus performing a limited form of
reflection on Haskell functions.
Implementation Outline
One of the key tools of the implementation is 'kwapply', which applies
a function to a polymorphic collection of that function's arguments.
The order of the arguments in the collection is irrelevant. The
contraption kwapply can handle polymorphic functions with arbitrary
number of labeled arguments.
For example, if we define
> f1 Size n = show n
> f2 Size n Color m = unwords ["size:", show n, "color:", show m]
> f3 Origin x Color m Size n =
> unwords ["origin:", show x, "size:", show n, "color:",show m]
then we can run
> katest1 = kwapply f1 (Size .*. () .*. HNil)
> katest11 = kwapply f1 (Size .*. "Large" .*. HNil)
>
> katest2 = kwapply f2 (Size .*. (1::Int) .*. Color .*. Red .*. HNil)
> katest21 = kwapply f2 (Color .*. Red .*. Size .*. (1::Int) .*. HNil)
>
> katest3 = kwapply f3 (Size .*. (1::Int) .*. Origin .*. (2.0::Float) .*.
> Color .*. Red .*. HNil)
Another key contraption is
> reflect_fk:: (ReflectFK fn kws) => fn -> Arg kws HNil
> reflect_fk _ = Arg HNil
that reflects on a user-supplied function. It converts the *type* of a
user function to a collection of keywords required by that
function. This and the previous contraptions may be used to define an
`extended' version of some user function that takes more arguments --
without the need to enumerate all arguments of the original
function. We thus infringe on the area of object and module systems.
The rest of the implementation is just to convert `kw fn defaults'
into the application of kwapply.
The rest of the implementation
We should note that all implementation is written in the
continuation-passing style (CPS) -- at the term level and especially
at the _typeclass level_. One of the reasons is to avoid relying on
overlapping instances: we compare types with a predicate `TypeEq x y
hbool', obtain the type-level boolean, and dispatch to two
non-overlapping instances of an auxiliary, continuation class. One
instance handles HTrue, and the other the HFalse alternative. Please
see the HList paper for more discussion of this technique.
The other, equally important reason for the thorough CPS of the
typeclasses is to control the order of evaluation of constraints and
their functional dependencies. The sole reason is to produce
informative error messages. The order of constraints is irrelevant
when all the constraints are satisfied. However, if the user omitted a
required keyword, many of the constraints below will fail. If a
'wrong' constraint fails first, we get a totally off-the-wall error
message that gives us no clue whatsoever about the problem. By tightly
constraining the order via CPS, we are able to force the typechecker
to give informative error messages.
Preliminaries
> -- A bit of syntax sugar for HLists
> infixr 1 :*:
> infixr 1 .*.
> type e :*: l = HCons e l
> (.*.) = HCons
Errors
> data ErrReqdArgNotFound x
> data ErrUnexpectedKW x
> data Trace x
All our keywords must be registered
> class IsKeyFN t flag | t-> flag
> instance IsKeyFN (Color->a->b) HTrue
> instance IsKeyFN (Size->a->b) HTrue
> instance IsKeyFN (Origin->a->b) HTrue
> instance IsKeyFN (RaisedBorder->a->b) HTrue
> instance TypeCast HFalse flag => IsKeyFN t flag
The implementation of KWApply
> class KWApply f arg_values r | f arg_values -> r where
> kwapply:: f -> arg_values -> r
>
> instance KWApply r HNil r where
> kwapply f _ = f
>
> instance (TypeEq kw kw' flag,
> KWApply' flag (kw->a->f') (kw' :*: a' :*: tail) r)
> => KWApply (kw->a->f') (kw' :*: a' :*: tail) r where
> kwapply = kwapply' (undefined::flag)
>
> class KWApply' flag f arg_values r | flag f arg_values -> r where
> kwapply':: flag -> f -> arg_values -> r
>
> instance (TypeCast v' v, KWApply f' tail r)
> => KWApply' HTrue (kw->v->f') (kw :*: v' :*: tail) r where
> kwapply' _ f (HCons kw (HCons v' tail)) =
> kwapply (f kw (typeCast v')) tail
>
> -- Rotate the arg list ...
> instance (HAppend tail (kw :*: v :*: HNil) l',
> KWApply f l' r)
> => KWApply' HFalse f (kw :*: v :*: tail) r where
> kwapply' _ f (HCons kw (HCons v tail)) =
> kwapply f (hAppend tail (kw .*. v .*. HNil))
The datatype Arg below is to maintain the state of keyword
accumulation: which keywords we need, and which keyword and values we
have already got.
arg_types is the phantom HList of keywords that are yet to be satisfied.
arg_values is the HList (kw .*. kw_value .*. etc)
of already found keywords and their values.
> newtype Arg arg_types arg_values = Arg arg_values deriving Show
Reflection on a function:
Given a function, return the type list of its keywords
> class ReflectFK f kws | f -> kws
> instance (IsKeyFN f flag, ReflectFK' flag f kws) => ReflectFK f kws
> class ReflectFK' flag f kws | flag f -> kws
> instance ReflectFK rest kws => ReflectFK' HTrue (kw->a->rest) (HCons kw kws)
> instance ReflectFK' HFalse f HNil
-- :t reflect_fk (undefined::Size->Int->Color->CommonColor->String)
-- :t reflect_fk (undefined::Size->Int->()->Int)
The main class: collect and apply the keyword arguments
> class KW f arg_desc arg_def r where
> kwdo :: f -> arg_desc -> arg_def -> r
>
> instance (IsKeyFN r rflag, -- Fail (Trace (arg_desc,r)),
> KW' rflag f arg_desc arg_def r)
> => KW f arg_desc arg_def r where
> kwdo = kw' (undefined::rflag)
>
> class KW' rflag f arg_desc arg_def r where
> kw' :: rflag -> f -> arg_desc -> arg_def -> r
If the continuation r does not promise any more keyword
arguments, apply the defaults
> instance KWMerge arg_needed arg_values arg_def f r
> => KW' HFalse f (Arg arg_needed arg_values) arg_def r where
> kw' _ f args_given arg_def = kwmerge args_given arg_def f
Otherwise, collect the supplied keyword and its value, and recurse for
more:
> instance KWAcc arg_desc kw a f arg_def r
> => KW' HTrue f arg_desc arg_def (kw->a->r) where
> kw' _ f arg_desc arg_def kw a = kwaccum arg_desc kw a f arg_def
Add the needed arguments from arg_def to arg_values and continue
with kwapply.
That is, we try to satisfy the missing arguments from the defaults.
It will be a type error if some required arguments are missing
> class KWMerge arg_needed arg_values arg_def f r |
> arg_needed arg_values arg_def f -> r where
> kwmerge:: Arg arg_needed arg_values -> arg_def -> f -> r
>
> instance KWApply f arg_values r
> => KWMerge HNil arg_values arg_def f r where
> kwmerge (Arg arg_values) _ f = kwapply f arg_values
>
> instance KWMerge' kw arg_def atail arg_values arg_def f r
> => KWMerge (HCons kw atail) arg_values arg_def f r where
> kwmerge (Arg arg_values) arg_def =
> kwmerge' (undefined::kw) arg_def
> ((Arg arg_values)::Arg atail arg_values) arg_def
>
> class KWMerge' kw list atail arg_values arg_def f r |
> kw list atail arg_values arg_def f -> r where
> kwmerge':: kw -> list -> (Arg atail arg_values) -> arg_def -> f -> r
>
> instance Fail (ErrReqdArgNotFound kw)
> => KWMerge' kw HNil atail arg_values arg_def f
> (ErrReqdArgNotFound kw) where
> kwmerge' = undefined
> instance (TypeEq kw kw' flag,
> KWMerge'' flag kw (kw' :*: etc) atail arg_values arg_def f r)
> => KWMerge' kw (kw' :*: etc) atail arg_values arg_def f r where
> kwmerge' = kwmerge'' (undefined::flag)
>
> class KWMerge'' flag kw list atail arg_values arg_def f r |
> flag kw list atail arg_values arg_def f -> r where
> kwmerge'':: flag -> kw -> list -> (Arg atail arg_values) -> arg_def
> -> f -> r
> instance KWMerge atail (kw :*: v :*: arg_values) arg_def f r
> => KWMerge'' HTrue kw (kw :*: v :*: tail)
> atail arg_values arg_def f r where
> kwmerge'' _ _ (HCons kw (HCons v _)) (Arg arg_values) =
> kwmerge ((Arg (kw .*. v .*. arg_values))::
> (Arg atail (kw :*: v :*: arg_values)))
> instance KWMerge' kw tail atail arg_values arg_def f r
> => KWMerge'' HFalse kw (kw' :*: v' :*: tail)
> atail arg_values arg_def f r where
> kwmerge'' _ kw (HCons _ (HCons _ tail)) = kwmerge' kw tail
Add the real argument to the Arg structure, and continue
> class KWAcc arg_desc kw a f arg_def r where
> kwaccum:: arg_desc -> kw -> a -> f -> arg_def -> r
>
> instance (HDelete kw arg_types arg_types',
> KW f (Arg arg_types' (kw :*: a :*: arg_values)) arg_def r)
> => KWAcc (Arg arg_types arg_values) kw a f arg_def r where
> kwaccum (Arg arg_values) kw a f =
> kwdo f (Arg (kw .*. a .*. arg_values)::
> Arg arg_types' (kw :*: a :*: arg_values))
Delete e from l to yield l' The element e must occur in l
> class HDelete e l l' | e l -> l'
> instance Fail (ErrUnexpectedKW e) => HDelete e HNil HNil
> instance (TypeEq e e' flag, HDelete' flag e (HCons e' tail) l')
> => HDelete e (HCons e' tail) l'
> class HDelete' flag e l l' | flag e l -> l'
> instance HDelete' HTrue e (HCons e tail) tail
> instance HDelete e tail tail'
> => HDelete' HFalse e (HCons e' tail) (HCons e' tail')
Finally,
> kw f = kwdo f (reflect_fk f)