tailof a functional stream
LogicT- backtracking monad transformer with fair operations and pruning
We present a procedure that picks a uniformly distributed random node from a tree. We traverse the tree only once and we do not know beforehand the number of nodes in the tree. The provably correct algorithm is an instance of a Reservoir sampling.
The procedure is written in a pure functional subset of R5RS Scheme and comes with a correctness proof. We must stress that the proof was developed not after the implementation but along with the implementation. In our experience, thinking about the proof and writing it down notably helped design and code the algorithm. Once the proof was written, the code followed immediately. The code worked on the first try.
comp.lang.schemeon Tue, 15 Apr 2003 22:17:15 -0700
This code demonstrates Dynamic Programming on the problem
of pretty printing a paragraph of text on a printer with fixed-width
fonts. The goal is to tightly arrange a given sequence of
n words within page margins, maximizing overall neatness. To be more precise, we wish to minimize the sum, over all lines
except the last, of the cubes of the number of blank characters at the
end of each line. See the comments in the code for more details.
The algorithm has
O(n^2) time and space
Commented C++ source code and sample output, with many annotations.
Z. Galil, K. Park: A linear-time algorithm for concave one-dimensional dynamic programming
Information Processing Letters, v33, N6, 309-311, 1990.
David Eppstein, livejournal.com user 11011110, pointed out that the present problem is an instance of concave 1d dynamic programming, which admits a linear-time solution.
The following two-part article attempts to design the fastest
solution to the problem of finding all subsets of a given size from a
given set. The precise problem is: given a set
and a number
N, return the set of all subsets of
L of cardinality
N. Sets are represented by
lists. We will be using R5RS Scheme.
In part 1, we start with the mathematical definition of the problem, which leads to a simple, correct, but inefficient solution. We then try to systematically optimize the function until we end up with the fastest function, which is notably faster than the other solutions proposed so far. The final solution is still pure functional. We also demonstrate that the choice of the Scheme interpreter does matter in relative performance of various algorithms.
In part 2, we again start with the mathematical definition of the problem, which leads to a simple, correct, and stunningly efficient solution. The final, so far the fastest solution is still pure functional. The key was to choose the right definition.
In the discussion, Doug Quale presented lazy stream implementations in Haskell and Scheme, and compared them with the above. Eli Barzilay described various memozied versions, which have even better performance. The two USENET threads contain the excellent discussion of the relative merits of memoization and laziness, contributed by Doug Quale and Eli Barzilay. The threads also include many timing comparisons.
Part 1 of the article [plain text file]
It was originally posted as Re: Subsets of a list on the newsgroup
comp.lang.scheme on Sat, 12 Jan 2002 00:52:23 -0800
Part 2 of the article [plain text file]
It was originally posted as The FASTEST subsets function [Was: Subsets of a list] on the newsgroup
comp.lang.scheme on Sat, 12 Jan 2002 00:56:01 -0800
The article is updated with a more optimized solution, which should perform better when compiled.
Discussion threads of the above titles,
comp.lang.scheme, Jan 9-18, 2002.
We describe a concise Haskell solution to the ``Mr.S and Mr.P'' puzzle. We rely on the straightforward encoding of multiple-world semantics of modalities.
The problem was posed by John McCarthy as follows. We
pick two numbers
b, so that
a>=b and both numbers are within the range [2,99]. We give Mr.P
a*b and give Mr.S the sum
The following dialog takes place:
The following Haskell code demonstrates a generic method of encoding facts, and the knowledge about facts, and the knowledge of the knowledge, etc. Incidentally, compared to the notation in McCarthy's paper, the Haskell notation is notably concise.
Chung-chieh Shan commented: ``The basic idea is to think of a set of possible worlds. Corresponding to each person (whose knowledge is being modeled) is a partition of this set of possible worlds; each partition contains one or more worlds that this person cannot distinguish. For someone to know a fact is for all of that person's indistinguishable possible worlds to verify that fact. For Alice to know that Bob doesn't know the weather, is for all of Alice's possible worlds (relative to the real world) to reside within a Bob-partition in which the weather is not consistent across all worlds.''
John McCarthy: Formalization of two Puzzles Involving
Complete literate Haskell98 code. It was first mentioned in the message posted on Lambda-the-Ultimate on Jan 27, 2003. The present version adds a straightforward memoization.
Hans P. van Ditmarsch, Ji Ruan and Rineke Verbrugge: Sum and Product in Dynamic Epistemic Logic
Journal of Logic and Computation, 2008, v18, N4, pp.563--588.
The paper discusses at great extent the history of the puzzle, its modeling in modal `public announcement logic', and solving using epistemic model checkers.
Dynamic epistemic logic puzzles
Inspired by Hans van Ditmarsch's tutorial course on Dynamic Epistemic Logic at NASSLLI 2010, we present a simplistic model-theoretic framework to solve the puzzles like the following:
Anne, Bill and Cath each have a positive natural number written on their foreheads. They can only see the foreheads of others. One of the numbers is the sum of the other two. All the previous is common knowledge. The following truthful conversation takes place:
We encode the statement of the problem as a filter on possible worlds.
The possible worlds consistent with the statement of the problem are
the solutions. `Agent
A does not know
phi' is interpreted as the statement that for
all worlds consistent with the propositions that
phi is true in some worlds but false in the others.
Complete commented Haskell98 code
H.P. van Ditmarsch, W. van der Hoek, and B.P. Kooi: Dynamic Epistemic
Logic and Knowledge Puzzles
Proc. 15th International Conference on Conceptual Structures (ICCS). LNCS 4604, pp. 45-58, Springer, 2007.
Representing knowledge about knowledge: ``Mr.S and Mr.P'' puzzle
We show how to merge two folds `elementwise' into the
resulting fold. Furthermore, we present a library of potentially
infinite ``lists'' represented as folds (aka streams, aka
success-failure-continuation--based generators). Whereas the standard
Haskell Prelude functions such as
take transform lists, we transform folds. We implement the range of
progressively more complex transformers -- from
dropWhile, and finally,
zipWith. The standard list API
is also provided.
Emphatically we never convert a stream to a list and so we never use recursion or recursive types. All iterative processing is driven by the fold itself. We only need higher-ranked types, because lists cannot be fully implemented in simply typed lambda-calculus.
The implementation of zip also solves the problem of ``parallel loops''. One can think of a fold as an accumulating loop and realize a nested loop as a nested fold. Representing a parallel loop as a fold is a challenge, answered at the end of the article. This becomes especially interesting in the case of general backtracking computations, or backtracking computations in direct style, with delimited continuations modeling `lists'.
Complete literate Haskell code. An earlier version was posted on the Haskell mailing list on Tue, 11 Oct 2005 17:25:24 -0700 (PDT). That version implemented zip with the help of a recursive type. The present version, inspired by a question from Chung-chieh Shan, introduces no extra data types, no recursion, and rather relies on the already defined functions to deconstruct a fold. Version 1.6 adds two examples of surprisingly simple expressions of list intersperse and Fibonacci in terms of fold.
Beyond Church encoding: Boehm-Berarducci isomorphism of algebraic data types and polymorphic lambda-terms
LogicT - backtracking monad transformer with fair
operations and pruning
which illustrates the close connection with foldr/build list-fusion, aka ``short-cut deforestation''. The
representation of lists is what one passes to
Predecessor and lists are not representable in
simply typed lambda-calculus
Therefore, higher-rank or recursive/inductive types are necessary for lists.
Parallel composition of streams: several sources to one sink
Folding over multiple streams using monad transformers
In the article on seemingly impossible functional programs, Marti'n Escardo' wrote about decidable checking of satisfaction of a total computable predicate on Cantor numerals. The latter represent infinite bit strings, or all real numbers within [0,1]. Mart'n Escardo's technique can tell, in finite time, if a given total computable predicate is satisfied over all possible infinite bit strings. Furthermore, for so-called sparse predicates, Marti'n Escardo's technique is very fast.
We re-formulate the problem in terms of streams and depth-limited depth-first search, and thus cast off the mystery of deciding the satisfiability of a total computable predicate over the set of all Cantor numerals (whose cardinality is greater than that of natural numbers!)
As an additional contribution, we show how to write functions over Cantor numerals in a `natural' monadic style so that those functions become self-partially evaluating. The instantiation of the functions in an appropriate pure monad gives us transparent memoization, without any changes to the functions themselves. The monad in question is pure and involves no reference cells.
On `dense' functions on numerals (i.e., those that need to examine most of the bits of its argument, up to a limit), our technique performs about 9 times faster than the most sophisticated one by Marti'n Escardo'.
Total stream processors and quantification over
infinite number of infinite streams. The complete article.
Extensively commented Haskell98 code
Marti'n Escardo': Seemingly impossible functional programs.
It is always an interesting challenge to write a pure functional and efficient implementation of an imperative algorithm destructively operating a data structure. The functional implementation has a significant benefit of equational reasoning and modularity. We can comprehend the algorithm without keeping the implicit global state in mind. The mutation-free, functional realization has practical benefits: the ease of adding checkpointing, undo and redo. The absence of mutations makes the code multi-threading-safe and helps in porting to distributed or non-shared-memory parallel architectures. On the other hand, an imperative implementation has the advantage of optimality: mutating a component in a complex data structure is a constant-time operation, at least on conventional architectures. Imperative code makes sharing explicit, and so permits efficient implementation of cyclic data structures.
We show a simple example of achieving all the benefits of an imperative data structure -- including sharing and the efficiency of updates -- in a pure functional program. Our data structure is a doubly-linked, possibly cyclic list, with the standard operations of adding, deleting and updating elements; traversing the list in both directions; iterating over the list, with cycle detection. The code:
TVars, or any other destructive updates;
The algorithm is essentially imperative, thus permitting identity checking and in-place `updates', but implemented purely functionally. Although the code uses many local, type safe `heaps', there is emphatically no global heap and no global state.
It is not for nothing that Haskell has been called the best imperative language. One can implement imperative algorithms just as they are -- yet genuinely functionally, without resorting to the monadic sub-language but taking the full advantage of clausal definitions, pattern guards, laziness.
The complete, commented Haskell98 code and many tests
Haskell-Cafe discussion ``Updating doubly linked lists''. January 2009.
A common problem is annotating nodes of an already constructed tree or other such data structure with arbitrary new data. We should accept that the original tree has been defined with no provision for node attributes; we should not make any changes to the data type definition. We should not even require rebuilding of the tree as we add annotations to its nodes. Our code must be pure functional; in particular, the tree to annotate should remain as it was. Finally, our solution should be expressible in a typed language without resorting to the Universal type.
Our problem is an instance of a more general one, of attribute, or property lists. In Common Lisp, a property list is a list of arbitrary key-value pairs attached to a symbol as an annotation. Crucially, the set of possible keys and the types of possible associated values are not known beforehand. One can always add an arbitrarily new annotation to a symbol. Property lists are especially handy in a compiler, letting each node of an abstract syntax tree be annotated with source location data, with the inferred type of the corresponding sub-expression, or with the results of various analyses. MLton, for example, uses property lists extensively for that purpose. However, MLton destructively modifies the tree as new annotations are added, and MLton resorts to the Universal type. Pure functional, typed implementation of post-factum--added property lists is an interesting problem.
Our solution relies on the observation that each node in
an (ordered) tree can be identified by a path -- a sequence of
integers. The root node has the empty sequence as its path. The
(h:t) identifies the node that is the
h-th child of the node reachable by the path
t. The path
is the `natural' identification for each tree node; it can be
constructed and resolved purely functionally. Furthermore, there is a
decidable notion of identity and order on paths. To annotate the tree
with values of a certain type, we build a separate
finite map data structure associating paths with the annotations on
the corresponding nodes. To add annotations of a different type, we
build another map.
We have used this solution in a type checking code, to annotate each
node of the syntax tree with the type. Each sub-expression gets
annotated with its reconstructed type. The annotations are attached
without re-defining the data type of expressions or even rebuilding
the syntax tree. Since the code was intended for teaching, clarity was
important and so was the avoidance of
STRefs let alone
StableNames and any IO. Our
code, extending the base type checker
TEvalNC.hs, is in
A bonus exercise was to modify the code to make the type checker return the reconstructed types of sub-terms even if the entire term turns out ill-typed. The intention was to model OCaml -- which, given a special flag, can dump the inferred types of all sub-expressions, even if the overall type checking failed. In Emacs and vi, one can highlight an expression or variable and see its inferred type. If the type checking failed, one can still explore what the type checker did manage to figure out.
Complete Haskell code of the type checker for simply-typed lambda calculus with constants and the fix-point. Type reconstruction is implemented as an evaluator with non-standard semantics.
A version of
TEvalNC.hs that reports not only
the inferred type of the whole term but also the inferred types for
each subterm. The latter data are
returned in a `virtual' typed AST -- virtual because the original AST
is not modified and the inferred types are attached to AST nodes,
Interpreting types as abstract values
Lecture notes with the explanation of the type checking code.
MLton: Property Lists
The description of property lists and their implementation using mutation and the Universal type.
nsequences. For example
(cross-product '((0) (0 1 2 3) (1 2)))should evaluate to
((0 0 1) (0 0 2) (0 1 1) (0 1 2) (0 2 1) (0 2 2) (0 3 1) (0 3 2))The solution is especially elegant if we use the standard (SRFI-1)
comp.lang.schemeon Thu, 11 Jan 2001 19:59:45 GMT
A primitive self-contained C code that computes and prints
3^N very fast. A non-negative integer
N may be as big as
This is an intended solution to a problem presented at the 1995 Programming Contest organized by University of North Texas' Chapter of ACM. The full text of the problem is given in the title comments to the code.
What counts is the overall speed, of computing the result
and converting it to ASCII. And fast the code is: on HP
9000/770/J210, it completes
3^2000 under 0.09 seconds,
bc takes 0.3 seconds of user time. The present
code uses no multiplications or divisions to compute and print
This Haskell98 code quickly computes Bernoulli numbers. The
code avoids explicit recursion, explicit factorials and (most)
computing with rationals, demonstrating stream-wise processing and CAF
memoization. For example, the following snippet defines a 2D table of
r^n for all r>=2 and n>1.
Thanks to lazy evaluation, the table is automatically `sized' as needed.
There is no need to guess the maximal size of the table so to allocate it.
powers = [2..] : map (zipWith (*) (head powers)) powersThe rest of the algorithm exhibits similar stream-wise processing and computations of tables in terms of themselves.
Commented Haskell98 source code and tests
Messages speedup help by Damien R. Sullivan,
Bill Wood, Andrew J Bromage, Mark P Jones, and many others posted on
the Haskell-Cafe mailing list on March 6-8, 2003
Computing prime numbers is an important practical task as well as a common example for programming language tutorials. The Eratosthenes sieve is probably the most familiar algorithm for determining prime numbers. Alas, quite many implementations that call themselves Eratosthenes sieve do not actually implement that algorithm. For example, the classic Haskell code
primes = sieve [ 2.. ] where sieve (p:x) = p : sieve [ n | n <- x, n `mod` p > 0 ]is not Eratosthenes sieve. For one thing, it uses the division operation (or,
mod). The Eratosthenes sieve specifically avoids both division and multiplication, which were quite difficult in old times. Mainly, as Melissa O'Neill explains, the above code tests every number for divisibility by all previously found primes. In contrast, the true Eratosthenes sieve affects only composite numbers. The prime numbers are `left out'; they are not checked by division or numeric comparison.
Given below are several implementations of the true Eratosthenes sieve algorithm, in Scheme, Scheme macros, and Haskell. The algorithm is usually formulated in terms of marks and crossing off marks, suggesting the imperative implementation with mutable arrays. The Scheme code follows that suggestion, using two important optimizations kindly described by George Kangas.
Eratosthenes sieve, however, can be implemented purely functionally, as Scheme macros and Haskell code demonstrate. The Haskell implementation is not meant to be efficient -- rather, it is meant to be purely functional, insightful, minimalist, and generalizable to other number sieves, e.g., `lucky numbers'. Like other Haskell algorithms it produces a stream of prime numbers. The Haskell implementation stores only marks signifying the numbers, but never the numbers themselves. Not only the implementation avoids multiplication, division or the remainder operations. We also avoid general addition and number comparison. We rely exclusively on the successor, predecessor and zero comparison. The predecessor can be easily eliminated. Thus the algorithm can be used with Church and Peano numerals, or members of Elliptic rings, where zero comparison and successor take constant time but other arithmetic operations are more involved.
Melissa O'Neill: Re: Genuine Eratosthenes sieve
Messages explaining the sieve algorithm and its differences from impostors; posted on Haskell-Cafe mailing list, February 2007.
Eratosthenes sieve and its optimal implementation [plain text file]
The explanation of the original Eratosthenes sieve and its optimizations.
The original article was posted as Re: arbitrary precision rationals on a newsgroup
comp.lang.scheme on Tue, 13 Nov 2001 15:07:34 -0800
The literate Haskell98 source code for pure functional, minimalist Eratosthenes and lucky number sieves
The code was originally posted in an article Even better Eratosthenes sieve and lucky numbers on the Haskell-Cafe mailing list on Mon, 12 Feb 2007 18:37:46 -0800 (PST)
A stress test of the syntax-rule macro-expander
Eratosthenes sieve as a syntax-rule macro, to perform primality test of Church-Peano numerals at macro-expand time
Lucky numbers: another number sieve
Random Relative Primes
The following is the refined code for the challenge originally posted by Joe English on a Haskell-Cafe thread about homework-like puzzles. The challenge was to figure out what the code does without first loading it up in a Haskell interpreter.
s f g x = f x (g x) puzzle = (!!) $ iterate (s (lzw (+)) (0:))  where lzw op  ys = ys lzw op (x:xs) (y:ys) = op x y : lzw op xs ysIncidentally, a small change gives a different series:
puzzle1 = (!!) $ iterate (s ((lzw (+)).(0:)) (1:))  where lzw op  ys = ys lzw op (x:xs) (y:ys) = op x y : lzw op xs ysFinally, how can we possibly live without the following:
puzzle2 = (!!) $ iterate (s ((lzw (+)).(1:).(0:)) (0:)) [1,1] where lzw op xs  =  lzw op (x:xs) (y:ys) = op x y : lzw op xs ysHints:
*Main> puzzle 5 [1,5,10,10,5,1] *Main> puzzle1 5 [1,2,4,8,16] *Main> puzzle2 5 [1,1,2,3,5,8,13]
Message Homework posted on the Haskell-Cafe mailing list on Mon, 25 Aug 2003 18:50:42 -0700 (PDT)
Discussion thread, started on Haskell-Cafe by Thomas Bevan on
Aug 22, 2003.
This site's top page is http://okmij.org/ftp/
Converted from SXML by SXML->HTML