From posting-system@google.com Sat Jan 12 03:52:28 2002
Date: Sat, 12 Jan 2002 00:52:23 -0800
From: oleg-at-pobox.com
Newsgroups: comp.lang.scheme
Subject: Re: Subsets of a list
References:
Message-ID: <7eb8ac3e.0201120052.ee51092@posting.google.com>
Status: RO
This article attempts to design the fastest solution to the problem of
finding all subsets of a given size from a given set. We start with
the mathematical definition of the problem, which leads to a simple,
correct but inefficient solution. We then try to systematically
optimize the function until we end up with the fastest function, which
is notably faster than other solutions proposed so far. The final,
fastest solution is still pure functional. We also demonstrate that
the choice of the interpreter does matter in relative performance of
various algorithms.
We start with the definition of the problem: given a set 'l' and a
number 'n', return the set of all subsets of 'l' of cardinality
'n'. Sets are represented by lists.
Suppose a function "subsets LIST N" is a solution. This function should
possess the following properties, which follow from the definition:
(subsets l 0) ==> '(()); the only subset of size (cardinality 0) is the
empty set. Note that l may be the empty set: the empty
set is its own (improper) subset.
(subsets '() n) if n>0 ==> '() ; there are no non-empty subsets in an empty set
(subsets (a . tail) n) ==> { (a . x) | x <- (subsets tail (n-1)) } Union
(subsets tail n)
that is, subsets of size n will either contain the element a, or will
not contain it.
For the particular case n=1, the latter property gives us:
(subsets '() 1) ==> '()
(subsets (a . tail) 1) ==> {a} Union (subsets tail 1)
in other words,
(subsets l 1) ==> { {x} | x <- l }
thus (subsets l 1) is a set of all singleton subsets.
This mathematical definition directly translates to Scheme.
(define (subsets-v0 l n)
(cond
((<= n 0) '(()))
((null? l) '())
((= n 1) (map list l))
(else
(append
(let ((hd (car l)))
(map
(lambda (lst) (cons hd lst))
(subsets-v0 (cdr l) (- n 1))))
(subsets-v0 (cdr l) n)))))
Next we need to design a set of validation tests.
(subset '(1 2 3 4) 0) ===> (())
(subset '(1 2 3 4) 1) ===> ((1) (2) (3) (4))
(subset '(1 2 3 4) 2) ===> ((1 2) (1 3) (1 4) (2 3) (2 4) (3 4))
(subset '(1 2 3 4) 3) ===> ((1 2 3) (1 2 4) (1 3 4) (2 3 4))
(subset '(1 2 3 4) 4) ===> ((1 2 3 4))
(subset '(1 2 3 4) 5) ===> ()
The test driver 'verify' is given in the Appendix. The function subset0
passes the test.
As the performance benchmark, we will take the one suggested by
John David Stone: finding all subsets of size 10 of a 20-element set.
(let ((n (time (subsets
'(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20) 10))))
#f)
As the baseline, we take the function by Thomas Baruchel:
(define (subsets-v1 l n)
(let ((subsets* '()))
(letrec ((subsets0 (lambda (l2 l* n2)
(if (zero? n2) (set! subsets* (cons l* subsets*))
(do ((i 0 (+ i 1)))
((> i (- (length l2) n2)) subsets*)
(subsets0 (list-tail l2 (+ i 1))
(cons (list-ref l2 i) l*) (- n2 1)))))))
(subsets0 l '() n))))
We must note first that the procedure is faulty. The verification
tests (procedure verify?) reveal that when n is 0, the subsets-v1
returns (i.e., unspecified result) rather than the expected
'().
Benchmarking subsets-v1 on Pentium III Xeon 500 MHz/128 MB; FreeBSD
4.0-RELEASE, Gambit-C 3.0 _interpreter_ gives: 6295 ms CPU time, 54.6
MB of allocated memory.
Benchmarking of subsets-v0 gives: 285023 ms CPU time, 263.1 MB of
allocated memory.
Clearly there is something wrong with subsets-v0. The culprit is not
difficult to spot: 'map' and 'append', which repeatedly scan the list,
generating garbage along the way. Both 'map' and 'append' can be
avoided if we re-write the recursive equation using an
accumulator-passing style. That is, instead of returning the list of
subsets, we will accept an accumulator and return the union of the
accumulator and the found subsets. Thus we introduce a function
(loop l n prev-els accum)
===> accum U { prev-els U x | x <- (subsets l n) }
We see that
(loop (a . tail) n prev-els accum)
===> accum U { prev-els U x | x <- (subsets (a . tail) n) }
... see the definition of (subsets (a . tail) n) above ...
===> accum U { prev-els U {a} U x | x <- (subsets tail (n-1)) } U
{ prev-els U x | x <- (subsets tail n) }
===> accum U { (prev-els U {a}) U x | x <- (subsets tail (n-1)) } U
{ prev-els U x | x <- (subsets tail n) }
... definition of loop ...
===> (loop tail (n-1) (prev-els U {a}) accum) U
{ prev-els U x | x <- (subsets tail n) }
===> (loop tail n prev-els accum')
where accum' = (loop tail (n-1) (prev-els U {a}) accum)
Thus we can transform subsets-v0 into subsets-v20:
(define (subsets-v20 l n)
(let loop ((l l) (n n) (prev-els '()) (accum '()))
(cond
((<= n 0) (cons prev-els accum))
((null? l) accum)
((= n 1)
(let fold ((l l) (accum accum))
(if (null? l) accum
(fold (cdr l) (cons (cons (car l) prev-els) accum)))))
(else
(loop (cdr l) n prev-els
; new accum
(loop (cdr l) (- n 1) (cons (car l) prev-els) accum))))))
Note that we also transformed (map list l) (for the case n = 1). In an
accumulator-passing style, map became fold, as expected. I believe it
is possible to translate subsets-v0 into subsets-v20 _mechanically_,
using the fusion property. But not today.
The function subsets-v20 verifies. The benchmark gives: 14090 ms CPU
time, 317.9 MB allocated memory. Re-writing subsets-v0 into the
accumulator-passing style improved the performance 20 times! Yet not
enough to beat the imperative baseline subsets-v1.
John David Stone suggested the following function:
(define (subsets-v3 l n)
(letrec ((subsets0 (lambda (l2 l* n2 acc)
(if (zero? n2)
(cons l* acc)
(do ((rest l2 (cdr rest))
(available (length l2) (- available 1))
(acc acc (subsets0 (cdr rest)
(cons (car rest) l*)
(- n2 1)
acc)))
((< available n2) acc))))))
(subsets0 l '() n '())))
which was called 'combos' in his article. The function completely
verifies. The benchmark runs at 8070 ms CPU time and allocates 162.1
MB of memory.
Comparison of subsets-v3 with subsets-v0 shows that the two functions are
rather similar. However, subsets-v3 uses an extra optimization: it
takes advantage of a stronger property that
(subsets l n) ==> '() whenever n > (length l)
This property is obvious, and can be derived from the basic
equations. However, it can save a lot of effort. To see if this is
important indeed, we try to take an advantage of the property in our
subsets-v20. Of course we don't want to compute (length l) every time
we need it. We determine it only once, and remember to decrement
whenever we take (cdr l).
(define (subsets-v21 l n)
(let loop ((l l) (ln (length l)) (n n) (prev-els '()) (accum '()))
(cond
((<= n 0) (cons prev-els accum))
((< ln n) accum)
((= n 1)
(let fold ((l l) (accum accum))
(if (null? l) accum
(fold (cdr l) (cons (cons (car l) prev-els) accum)))))
(else
(loop (cdr l) (- ln 1) n prev-els
; new accum
(loop (cdr l) (- ln 1) (- n 1) (cons (car l) prev-els) accum))))))
The function verifies and runs the benchmark at 7660 ms CPU time and
164.3 MB of allocated memory. Not so bad! We manage to beat the
subsets-v3 although not the baseline. Gambit is not Chez Scheme, it
runs subsets-v3 slower than it runs the baseline.
Now we have stumbled on the optimization principle: roll-out, i.e.,
rely on more special, derived properties. BTW, this principle runs
opposite to the usual mathematical approach of distilling a set of
premises to the bare minimum.
Let us derive another special case, and take advantage of it:
(subset l (length l)) ==> (list l)
There is only one subset of l of cardinality (length l), which is l
itself.
(define (subsets-v22 l n)
(let loop ((l l) (ln (length l)) (n n) (prev-els '()) (accum '()))
(cond
((<= n 0) (cons prev-els accum))
((< ln n) accum)
((= ln n) (cons (append l prev-els) accum))
((= n 1)
(let fold ((l l) (accum accum))
(if (null? l) accum
(fold (cdr l) (cons (cons (car l) prev-els) accum)))))
(else
(loop (cdr l) (- ln 1) n prev-els
; new accum
(loop (cdr l) (- ln 1) (- n 1) (cons (car l) prev-els) accum))))))
The function verifies and runs the benchmark at 4965 ms of CPU time
and 97.2 MB of allocated memory. This is the absolute record: we
manage to beat the baseline!
Let us push the envelope further, and take advantage of another
special case:
(subset l (- (length l) 1)) ==>
{ l \ {x} | x <- l }
In Scheme terms,
(define (subsets-v23 l n)
(let loop ((l l) (ln (length l)) (n n) (prev-els '()) (accum '()))
(cond
((<= n 0) (cons prev-els accum))
((< ln n) accum)
((= ln n) (cons (append l prev-els) accum))
((= ln (+ 1 n))
(let fold ((l l) (seen prev-els) (accum accum))
(if (null? l) accum
(fold (cdr l) (cons (car l) seen)
(cons
(append (cdr l) seen)
accum)))))
((= n 1)
(let fold ((l l) (accum accum))
(if (null? l) accum
(fold (cdr l) (cons (cons (car l) prev-els) accum)))))
(else
(loop (cdr l) (- ln 1) n prev-els
; new accum
(loop (cdr l) (- ln 1) (- n 1) (cons (car l) prev-els) accum))))))
The function verifies and runs at 4132 ms of CPU time and 72.4 MB of
allocated memory. We're 50% faster than the baseline, the record so
far.
The following table summarizes the performance benchmark: user running
times in seconds. The table also reports the results for another
Scheme interpreter, Bigloo 2.4b:
/usr/bin/time bigloo -i /tmp/b5.scm
The latter results include the cost of starting up the interpreter.
Procedure Gambit-C Bigloo 2.4b Bigloo 2.4b
interpreter, s interpreter, s compiler, s
subsets-v0 285.0 11.59 5.62 3.14
subsets-v1 6.3 5.45 2.22 0.34
subsets-v3 8.1 4.78 0.96 0.27
subsets-v20 14.1 5.53 0.96 0.26
subsets-v21 7.7 4.88 0.66 0.26
subsets-v22 5.0 3.18 0.62 0.25
subsets-v23 4.1 2.86 0.82 0.25
subsets-v1 is the baseline, written by Thomas Baruchel
subsets-v3 is written by John David Stone (which was called combos)
Platform: Pentium III Xeon 500 MHz/128 MB; FreeBSD 4.0-RELEASE
The column for the compiled code has two sub-columns. The left
subcolumns refers to the code compiled using the default Bigloo
flags. The right subcolumn refers to the code compiled with -Obench
-unsafe flags. The running time of the compiled code includes the
start-up time.
The table shows that there is some variation between the
interpreters. subsets-v3 is slower than the baseline on Gambit-C yet
is faster on Bigloo. Still subsets-v23 is the absolute interpreted
leader so far. It is gratifying to see that the leader is pure
functional, and it was derived systematically.
But this was just tinkering around the edges. Please see the next
article.
Appendix. The verification framework
; Compare two lists l1 and l2 modulo the order of elements
; "pred? X Y" is the predicate used to test equivalence of elements
; of l1 and l2
(define (set-equal? pred? l1 l2)
(if (null? l1) (null? l2)
(let loop ((l2-to-see l2) (l2-seen '()))
(and (pair? l2-to-see)
(if (pred? (car l1) (car l2-to-see))
(set-equal? pred? (cdr l1) (append (cdr l2-to-see) l2-seen))
(loop (cdr l2-to-see) (cons (car l2-to-see) l2-seen)))))))
; Test two powersets for equality
(define (pset-equal? ps1 ps2)
(set-equal? (lambda (s1 s2) (set-equal? equal? s1 s2)) ps1 ps2))
(define test-cases
'( ; arguments expected result
( ((1 2 3 4) 0) . (()) )
( ((1 2 3 4) 1) . ((1) (2) (3) (4)) )
( ((1 2 3 4) 2) . ((1 2) (1 3) (1 4) (2 3) (2 4) (3 4)) )
( ((1 2 3 4) 3) . ((1 2 3) (1 2 4) (1 3 4) (2 3 4)) )
( ((1 2 3 4) 4) . ((1 2 3 4)) )
( ((1 2 3 4) 5) . () )
))
(define (verify subsets-fn)
(for-each
(lambda (tcase)
(let ((result (apply subsets-fn (car tcase)))
(expected (cdr tcase)))
(if (or (not (list? result)) (not (pset-equal? result expected)))
(for-each display
(list "Error: for arguments " (car tcase)
" expected: " expected
" found: " result #\newline)))))
test-cases))